Working with stone is an art, and this art form is known as lapidary. However, this procedure is used while working with small gems. There are different types of gem cutting techniques that are applied for different types of gems. These include cabbing, tumbling, carving and faceting. In addition to that, there are innumerable ways of assembling the stones in patterns of mosaic. Hence, these are used to make jewelries, ornamental objects and boxes.
In this article, we will discuss about the different types of processes involved in gem cutting.
1 - Tumbling-
This is the simplest form of cutting gems. The rough material is put in a barrel and finer abrasives are used to obtain a polish. The level of polish is higher compared to what happens to the rocks in a stream. It is easy to do and offers sensational results. These tumbled stones can be easily turned into jewelry.
2 - Cabochon cutting-
Cutting cabs or cabochon cutting is one of the most common forms of cutting gems. The gems are cut with a flat bottom and curved on the top. After cutting, these cabs or gems attain a distinct value, especially based on the material from where they are cut. This process of cutting is something that everyone can master with practice.
3 - Faceting-
This style of cutting brings the maximum profit making potential. After cutting, it turns the stone into a faceted gem. The surface is covered with geometrically arranged and flat surfaces, and each of these surfaces is called facets. Hence, the gem can also be referred to as multifaceted. The main purpose of this procedure is to bring out the brilliance in the piece of gem. Light enters the stone and it is reflected at the bottom. This cutting process is undoubtedly associated with lots of challenges, but it is certainly one of the greatest art forms.
4 - Carving-
It is the most challenging of all the processes involved in gem cutting. Very few recognized experts are found in this field. The experts require a distinct artistic sense along with the thorough understanding of the lapidary principles. Often, the materials create limit in carving them to a desirable shape. However, different types of carving can be done, and one of them is cameo. They are cut from sea shells and these can be carved from any material.
5 - Shapes Of Gemstones:
You will find several fancy shaped gemstones. These shapes can include anything from round, rectangle, cross, square, oval or tear drops. In faceting, the standard shapes are round, rectangle or square. Ovals are fancy shapes because they take more effort than cutting a round. On the other hand, pear and heart-shaped gems require more work. Apart from that, there are several faceting styles and these are made on the basis of several calculations.
Based on the standards of cuts, these are given different names like round brilliants and emerald cuts. You need to recognize several variations in their cuts and shapes. Hence, there is no end to what an artist can do to the shape and cut of a stone.